Camels crossing the desert near Africa's highest sand dunes at Temet, Air and Tenere Natural Reserves world heritage site, NigerElephants crossing the Zambezi river in Mana Pools National Park world heritage site, ZimbabweIce cliffs near the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro National Park world heritage site, TanzaniaBlack and white ruffed lemur, Rainforests of the Atsinanana world heritage site, Madagascar

African Forests

Map of Africa's rainforests (area shaded dark green) with the location of five UNESCO-designated world heritage sites in Ivory Coast (Tai National Park), Cameroon (Dja Faunal Reserve), Gabon (Lope-Okanda) and the Democratic Republic of Congo (Salonga National Park and Okapi Wildlife Reserve)Evergreen tropical rainforests - shown dark green on the map - cover about 12% of Africa and are the richest areas of the continent biologically.  The rainforests are found in three quite distinct areas, each supporting a wide array of unique species.  These are (1) the Congo Basin rainforests; (2) the ‘Upper Guinea' forests of West Africa (which are separated from the Congo Basin by a dry area between Nigeria and Ghana); and (3) isolated forest ‘islands' on mountains, and along the East African coast.  Africa's rainforests are not as wet as those on other continents, and have gone through phases of contraction and expansion over the millennia in response to climate change.

Within Africa's 3.5 million square kilometres of rainforests there are just six world heritage sites, covering an area of 63,000 km2.  Five of these are in the Congo Basin (Dja Faunal Reserve in Cameroon; Lope National Park in Gabon; Sangha Trinational straddling the border between Congo, CAR and Cameroon; Salonga National Park and Okapi Faunal Reserve in the Democratic Republic of Congo) and the sixth (Tai National Park in Cote D'Ivoire) is in the Upper Guinea forest block.  There are also three sites along Africa's Great Rift Valley which are primarily rainforest habitats (Bwindi-Impenetrable, Virunga and Kahuzi-Biega National Parks), but these are covered elsewhere. Follow the links to learn more about these amazing places in Africa's rainforests!

Slideshow of the main features of Africa's world heritage forests

Iconic Species:  African rainforests are home to our closest relatives - the chimpanzee and bonobo - as well as gorillas and a multitude of monkeys and antelopes that are specially adapted to rainforest habitats.  Forest elephants are much smaller than their savanna-dwelling cousins, but no less important as habitat engineers - dispersing rainforest trees over vast distances and maintaining swampy forest clearings (‘Baias') as saltlicks and playgrounds for the wider forest ‘community' of animals.

The present-day distributions of different species owe much to climate change over the millennia, and the ability of individual species to survive (as forests have contracted during dry periods) and re-colonise areas (as warmer, wetter conditions take hold and forests are able to expand). The peculiar okapi - a kind of forest giraffe - occurs only in the north-eastern corner of the Congo Basin;  the pygmy hippo is restricted to West African rainforests; and the bonobo (pygmy chimpanzee) occurs only to the south of the great Congo River. Thus conservation of the full range of African rainforest species requires protection of a network of carefully selected sites, each protecting a different suite of species.

Missing Links: The six existing world heritage sites in the lowland rainforests, together with those straddling Africa's Great Rift Valley, constitute an excellent suite of sites which together protect most of the key species typical of Africa's rainforests.  A major initiative is currently underway to identify possible additional sites in the central African lowland rainforests (the Central African World Heritage Forests Initiative, CAWHFI), and there is still need to consider world heritage status for the highly distinctive forests of the ‘Eastern Arc Mountains' in Tanzania, as well as the East African coastal forests from Kenya to southern Mozambique.


African rainforests:  Okapi Wildlife Reserve on the eastern fringes of the Congo Basin rainforestsAfrican rainforests:  Dja Faunal Reserve (Cameroon, world heritage site) supports an especially diverse primate faunaAfrican rainforests:  forest people are adapted to a hunter-gathering lifestyle, such as this man carrying a hunting net on his head in the Okapi Faunal ReserveAfrican rainforests are rich in species of primate, including this deBrazza's monkey in Dja Faunal Reserve (Cameroon)



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